Advantages and Disadvantages of Driverless Cars

Updated on May 15, 2019
GoodBrains2 profile image

Since graduating from university, Paul has worked as a librarian, bookseller, and freelance writer. Born in the UK, he now lives in Florida.

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What's the Difference Between an Autonomous and a Driverless Car?

Also called autonomous cars, robotic cars, and self-driving cars, truly driverless cars were essentially the stuff of science fiction until relatively recently.

Definitions vary, but autonomous cars are typically defined as versions of our current vehicles that are capable of taking over from the driver under certain circumstances, whereas driverless cars are even more automated and usually have no steering wheel or pedals.

The involvement of Google (and now Waymo) in developing the necessary software for the operation of these vehicles has increased public interest in technology and functionality issues as well as increasing investment.

Below, I explain...

  • the advantages and disadvantages of driverless cars, presented in the form of a pros-and-cons list,
  • if driverless cars are more or less safe than human-driven ones,
  • which type are better for the environment,
  • how driverless cars work,
  • how the various levels of a car's automation are classified,
  • where you might see driverless cars on the road today, and
  • a brief history of their development.

Google's completely autonomous prototype. It has no brake pedals or steering wheel. They're not street-legal... yet.
Google's completely autonomous prototype. It has no brake pedals or steering wheel. They're not street-legal... yet.

Advantages of Driverless Cars

  • Without the need for a driver, cars could become mini leisure rooms. Without the need for controls, there would be more space available inside the vehicle and no need for passengers to face forwards.
  • Entertainment technology, such as video screens, could be used without any concern of distracting the driver.
  • Human drivers notoriously bend rules and take risks, but driverless cars will obey every road rule and posted speed limit.
  • Over 80% of car crashes in the US are caused by driver error. There would be less user errors and fewer mistakes on the roads if all vehicles became driverless. Drunk and drugged drivers would also be a thing of the past, and passengers might even sleep without risking safety.
  • Travelers would be able to journey overnight and sleep for the duration.
  • Traffic could be coordinated more smoothly in urban areas to prevent bottlenecks and traffic jams at busy times. Commute times could be reduced drastically.
  • Driving fatigue and getting lost would be things of the past.
  • Sensory technology could potentially perceive the environment better than humans could, seeing farther ahead, better in poor visibility, and detecting smaller and more subtle obstacles. Plus, several cameras might be used at once, and cameras have no blind spots, so they will be more aware and vigilant than a human driver ever could be.
  • Speed limits could be safely increased, thereby shortening journey times.
  • Difficult maneuvering and parking would be less stressful and require no special skills. The car could even just drop you off and then go park itself.
  • People who have difficulties driving—such as disabled people, older citizens, and children—would be able to experience the freedom of solo car travel.
  • There would be no need for drivers licenses or driving tests.
  • Presumably, with fewer associated risks, insurance premiums for car owners would go down.
  • Efficient travel also means fuel savings, simultaneously cutting costs and making less of a negative environmental impact.
  • Greater efficiency would mean fewer emissions and less pollution from cars in general.
  • Reduced need for safety gaps, lanes, and shoulders means that road capacities for vehicles would be significantly increased.
  • Passengers should experience a smoother riding experience.
  • Self-aware cars would lead to a reduction in car theft.

Without the need for human-operated controls, the interior of the autonomous vehicle will have lots of room for other activities.
Without the need for human-operated controls, the interior of the autonomous vehicle will have lots of room for other activities. | Source

Disadvantages of Driverless Cars

  • A self-driving car would be unaffordable for most people, likely costing over $100,000.
  • Truck drivers, taxi drivers, Uber/Lyft, and other delivery people will eventually lose their jobs as autonomous vehicles take over.
  • A computer malfunction—even just a minor glitch—could easily cause a far worse accident than anything human error might typically incur.
  • Autonomous cars notoriously have trouble navigating crowds of pedestrians. They have trouble distinguishing and determining human intention on the roads.
  • Since driverless cars obey all the rules and regulations, this means that both the individual vehicle and the larger flow of traffic might be slower and less organic. These vehicles are said to behave like student drivers: slow, conservative, and timid. On a road shared with human drivers, they may be annoying to navigate around for human drivers.
  • If the car crashes without a driver, who's fault is it: the software designer or the owner of the vehicle? Driverless systems will definitely trigger many debates about legal, ethical, and financial responsibility.
  • The cars would rely on the collection of location and user information, creating major privacy concerns.
  • Hackers getting into the vehicle's software and controlling or affecting its operation would be a major concern.
  • Maintenance would have to be overseen. Some process of governmental oversight would have to be instated to make sure every driverless car is mechanically sound and up-to-date.
  • Autonomous vehicles have difficulty operating in certain types of weather. Heavy rain interferes with roof-mounted laser sensors, and snow can interfere with cameras.
  • Reading road signs is challenging for a robot. GPS and other technologies might not register obstacles like potholes, recent changes in road conditions, and newly posted signs.
  • As drivers become more accustomed to not driving, their proficiency and experience will diminish. Should they then need to drive under certain circumstances, there may be problems.
  • The road system and infrastructure would likely need major upgrades for driverless vehicles to operate on them. Traffic and street lights, for instance, would likely all need altering.
  • Self-driving cars would be great news for terrorists, as those vehicles could be loaded with explosives and used as moving bombs.
  • Ethical dilemmas could arise which a machine might struggle to deal with. Faced with a choice between plowing into a group of schoolchildren or going off a bridge and killing all its passengers, what will the vehicle do? Should the vehicle always swerve to avoid animals in the road or always prioritize the safety and comfort of passengers?
  • Human behavior—such as heavy foot traffic, jaywalkers, and hand signals—are difficult for a computer to understand. In situations where drivers need to deal with erratic human behavior or communicate with one another, the driverless vehicle might fail.
  • How would the police interact with driverless vehicles, especially in the case of accidents or crimes?

61% of people say they wouldn't ride in a self-driving car... and only 21% said they'd be willing to ride in one.

— According to a survey by the Brookings Institution

Which Are Safer: Driverless or Human-Driven Cars?

According to data from the University of Michigan’s Transportation Research Institute's report, which compared all the available data on all collisions of self-driving cars with statistics involving human-driven ones, driverless vehicles get into more crashes, but those crashes are less serious than those caused by conventional vehicles.

  • Driverless vehicles had more crashes: 9.1 crashes per million miles driven (compared with 4.1 crashes per million miles for human-driven ones).
  • Driverless cars had a higher rate of injury, but those injuries were not as dire as those incurred in conventional vehicles: Driverless cars had 0.36 injuries per crash (compared with 0.25 for conventional vehicles). However, these injuries were minor compared with those sustained in conventional vehicle crashes.
  • However, the driverless vehicles were NOT responsible for any of the crashes.
  • In the incidents they looked at, driverless cars also never hit bicyclists or pedestrians, something that human-driven vehicles often did.

Over 80% of car crashes in the US are caused by driver error.

Are Driverless Cars Better for the Environment?

Today, transportation is one of the biggest contributors to greenhouse-gas emissions and pollution. There's a chance that driverless cars could help.

  • Many autonomous vehicles are being designed to be entirely electric, so they'd save on fossil fuels and reduce emissions and pollution.
  • If we all used taxis, then we would be sharing those vehicles and we'd need fewer cars, collectively. We'd need fewer cars and we'd prevent the environmental cost of manufacturing more cars.
  • Many of these vehicles are built for more efficient fuel usage, and they can be programmed to take the most fuel-efficient routes and can be programmed to operate at maximum efficiency all the time.

How Do Driverless Cars Work?

Driverless cars sense their surroundings using technology such as LiDAR, radar, GPS, and computer vision. The sensory information they gather is then processed to direct appropriate pathways for the vehicle to take, avoiding obstacles and also obeying the road signs and rules. The car uses a digital map which can be constantly updated according to sensory input. This allows the vehicle to adapt to changing situations as well as travel through previously unknown territories.

Technologies That Autonomous Vehicles Require:

  • Video is used to read road signs and traffic lights and keep tabs on pedestrians, obstacles, and other vehicles.
  • Radar sensors keep track of the position of nearby vehicles.
  • LiDAR sensors monitor the road's borders and lane markings and other things in the vicinity.
  • While parking, ultrasonic wheel sensors monitor the position of curbs and other vehicles.
  • A central computer collects and analyses all this data to help it steer, accelerate, and brake, as needed.

Different Levels of Autonomy in Vehicles

This formal classification system for automated cars has been proposed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Level 0: Driver has complete control of vehicle at all times.

Level 1: Some vehicle controls are automated, e.g. automatic braking.

Level 2: Two or more controls can be automated at the same time, e.g. cruise control and lane keeping.

Level 3: The driver can yield control in certain circumstances.

Level 4: Driver not expected to play any part in the driving process at all.

Level 5: The vehicle performs autonomously in every scenario, including extreme and unusual conditions.

Are self-driving, autonomous, robotic, and driverless cars all the same?

Insiders don't use these terms interchangeably, but most people see them as synonyms. Technically, a self-driving car is less advanced than a driverless one, since a driverless car (Level 4 or 5) never requires a person to take control—in fact, it may even lack the steering wheel and brakes that would make that possible. An insider might use the terms "driverless" and "autonomous" almost interchangeably to refer to a vehicle that requires little or no driver participation, while the terms "self-driving" and "automated" have broader, less precise meanings.

Today, most vehicles are at least partially self-driving (Level 1, 2, and 3) with automatic brake systems, cruise control, and lane assistance. Most cars on the road now are automated to some degree, but a merely automated car doesn't have the capability or autonomy that an autonomous car has. In the US, there are very few legal, fully-autonomous and driverless vehicles on the road, unless they're being tested. You may see a few autonomous (Level 3, 4, or 5) prototypes driving around, although they usually contain a human person with access to the controls in case of emergency.

Driverless Taxis

What about those driverless taxis we've all heard about, the ones that are supposed to take the human drivers' jobs away?

Many companies are moving to make this idea a reality. For example, in 2018, Google's break-off company started offering driverless taxi service to passengers in a 100 mile zone of Phoenix suburbs. The company says it has logged more than 10 million miles testing its vehicles on public streets. This service, called Waymo One, usually includes a human "co-driver" who's there to take over the controls in case of emergency, but not always, and Waymo says it will eventually phase out these co-drivers (although they don't say when).

The companies who are testing on public roads and experimenting with driverless taxi services have not been very public or transparent about their findings or activities. Although Waymo calls itself "the safest driver on the road," surveys have shown that people are hesitant to trust the technology, and for good reason: In March of 2018, a pedestrian was hit and killed by a self-driving Uber in Arizona.

Will driverless taxis be cheaper than Ubers or Lyfts?

In Arizona, using a driverless taxi costs about the same as using a regular, human-driven service. The prohibitive cost of the vehicle itself negates any savings in human labor. When the technology and cost of building them becomes cheaper, that's when professional human drivers will have something to worry about.

What's It Like Riding Inside a Driverless Car?

Where Are Driverless Cars Legal in the US?

The move toward full-fledged legality will likely be long and slow, but many states have taken steps in that direction. In the US, as of 2018, thirty states—Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Nebraska, New York, Nevada, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Washington, Washington D.C., and Wisconsin—have enacted legislation related to autonomous vehicles.

When Will We See Driverless Cars on the Street?

With so many states moving to enact legislation and so many companies testing their vehicles on the roads, you may have already seen a driverless vehicle... and perhaps you didn't even notice. However, companies and cities alike are being very hush-hush about these tests, since the prevailing public sentiment is not entirely positive.

When will I be able to buy a driverless car?

According to automaker and technology company predictions, Level 4 vehicles could be available to the public within a few years. However, they will likely cost over $100,000 and will therefore be unaffordable for most people.

A Brief History of Self-Driving Vehicles

The origins of automated cars go back to the 1920s, when experiments on automated driving systems (ADS) started being conducted. Technology significantly advanced and trials started being conducted in the 1950s, but it wasn't until the introduction of computers in the 1980s that truly autonomous vehicles became a possibility. Mercedes-Benz, General Motors, Bosch, Nissan, Renault, Toyota, the University of Parma, Oxford University, and Google (now Waymo) have all developed prototype vehicles since then.

What about you?

Would YOU ride in a driverless car?

See results

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

Questions & Answers

  • Are driverless cars being developed for India?

    India may well get driverless cars much later than more developed countries, according to most industry experts. This is not because of the car technology, but rather the challenges of India's chaotic roads. As well as inadequate signage and badly maintained roads, drivers face a diversity of hazards, including auto-rickshaws, rickshaws, trucks, cycles, hard-carts, cows, elephants and camels. The Indian government may also desire to protect the jobs of worker drivers in the near future, rather than see them be made unemployed by driverless vehicles.

  • Are there only driverless cars at the moment, or are there trials for other vehicles as well?

    Currently, cars are the only road vehicles being trialed. Other types of vehicle will likely follow later.

© 2015 Paul Goodman

Comments

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    • profile image

      Stacey Schaller 

      6 months ago

      Very interesting comments. Your article is very well done.

    • profile image

      gh mbnm 

      6 months ago

      Are self driving cars better for the environment?

    • profile image

      Abigail 

      8 months ago

      What is your opinion on driverless cars?

    • profile image

      mrs dicaprio 

      10 months ago

      so helpful my whole class is on this page thanks

    • profile image

      Jason Bourne 

      10 months ago

      Thanks a lot.

    • profile image

      random 

      17 months ago

      Thanks very useful

    • profile image

      Teja 

      18 months ago

      Thanks anna

    • profile image

      sinha 

      18 months ago

      Quite useful!

    • profile image

      Bill Nye 

      18 months ago

      Interesting

    • profile image

      Random User who needed homework answers 

      18 months ago

      thanks for my homework answers

    • profile image

      Jocelyne (France) 

      19 months ago

      Very interesting article that makes us better think about this new possibility.

    • profile image

      chauhan rajesh 

      21 months ago

      Nice project for my subject

    • profile image

      jaskiran 

      22 months ago

      Such a useful article. It really helped me a lot and I learnt many new things about this time of AI. Thank you for all this help!

    • newbizmau profile image

      Maurice Glaude 

      23 months ago from Mobile, AL

      I'm personally looking for to this. I've been waiting for the day when everyone drives them since I first saw this concept in a boyscout magazine when I was kid that depicted two people playing chess facing each other instead of driving.

    • profile image

      Du dam sun 

      23 months ago

      Dum dum doorknob eat some liver this was a very good article.

    • profile image

      Axel 

      23 months ago

      Very good article. Has the most on driverlless cars i could find.

    • profile image

      RaNdOm UsEr 

      23 months ago

      Good information for school

    • profile image

      hhbnih 

      24 months ago

      good

    • profile image

      balaji j 

      2 years ago

      useful information.thanks.

    • profile image

      Ms23 

      2 years ago

      This is a great idea best site :)

    • profile image

      y347 

      2 years ago

      I think this car will be a good car imagine if you need to read something your boss told you to read and your late on your way you will be reading the book.

    • profile image

      Quick 

      2 years ago

      Very good website

    • profile image

      Sky 

      2 years ago

      This was pretty helpful considering that I am writing an essay/speech of going for driverless cars. So I basically tried to only understand the whole "advantages" point, but now I feel like I want to go against because of some of the disadvantages. Great job on this, I actually found things that weren't in ALL the other sites I've looked at.

    • profile image

      punji 

      2 years ago

      cars can be driven all over especially in the U.K

    • profile image

      Jonathan 

      2 years ago

      Well, maybe our great-grandparents missed riding horse driven carraiges

    • profile image

      DaCarAddict 

      2 years ago

      Very true. This article covers a lot of ground for the driverless cars debate; I personally don't trust these cars in the future as who knows what AI technology can understand and preform in emergencies.

    • profile image

      emily 

      2 years ago

      ok i think i will miss normal cars 50 years in the future

    • Glenn Stok profile image

      Glenn Stok 

      3 years ago from Long Island, NY

      You covered this issue with driverless cars very thoroughly. Your lists of advantages and disadvantages provided a lot of issues to consider. And it is clear that this is not going to,happen any time soon. The entire infrastructure of roads will need to be changed, as you had mentioned.

      I can't imagine how autonomous vehicles will be able to maneuver through complicated areas with confusing signage. I would think that there has to be a new technology where roadsigns transmit information via radio signals, or maybe Wi-Fi. And this will then interface with autonomous vehicles.

      In any case, this technology is something I expect to happen in the next decade. Maybe not with completely self driving vehicles, but with vehicles that help existing drivers when necessary.

    • newbizmau profile image

      Maurice Glaude 

      4 years ago from Mobile, AL

      Very cool. I remember these boy scout magazines that I used to get way back in elementary school. I saved this particular one because it had a futuristic car on the cover that displayed people facing each other playing chess. It was suppose to be the car of the future and it was projected that we would have these cars in the YEAR 2000. I thought wow back in the 80s the year 2000 is going to be so awesome. Well the year 2000 came and went and I'm still driving. What happened?

    • Larry Rankin profile image

      Larry Rankin 

      4 years ago from Oklahoma

      It is one thing to get in a train on a rail with no driver, but I just can't see getting into a car that drives itself. Just a control freak I guess.

      Interesting hub.

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