Likely one of these situations occurred:
1. You replaced a fuse with a fuse of an incorrect value. Double check that you used the correct type of fuse per the vehicle's manual.
2. One of the fuses you inserted is bad or quickly went bad after installation, causing one of the systems in your vehicle to stop working correctly.
3. You replaced a bad fuse, causing a system in your vehicle that was not working previously to start working. That system has an issue causing your vehicle to display the check engine light. This is less likely if the check engine light wasn't on before this.
4. It's a coincidence and another system in your car started to experience an issue just after you replaced the fuse. Believe it or not, this does happen even though it is also less likely.
The easiest way to narrow down the problem is to use an OBD 2 reader, such as the one I linked to in the article, to read the trouble codes from your car's computer. You can then cross reference this code online or with the manual that comes with the reader to find out exactly which system is causing your car's check engine light to illuminate.