How to Check for a Bad Brake Booster

Updated on January 22, 2019
Dan Ferrell profile image

Dan Ferrell writes about do-it-yourself car maintenance and repair. He has certifications in automation and control technology.

Automotive brake booster
Automotive brake booster | Source

Common Signs of a Failed Brake Booster

Don't know if you have a bad brake booster?

Here are three common signs that your brake booster may have failed:

  • You need more effort to apply the brakes (stiff brake pedal).
  • The brake pedal doesn't return to its original position by itself.
  • The engine rpm goes down when you depress the brake pedal at idle.

Before you condemn the booster, though, you need to confirm that the device has failed. This simple guide briefly explains how the conventional, power brake vacuum booster (found in most gasoline engine vehicles) works. The guide will then explain a series of simple tests you can apply at home in a few minutes to save some time and money in repairs.

The tests come in separate sections for an easier diagnostic. For most tests you won't need any tools to know that the booster has failed. But, if you still need further confirmation, you'll also find a series of tests that make use of a simple vacuum gauge and a hand-held vacuum pump to confirm your findings.

First, let's see briefly how a common brake booster works to help you make sense of the simple tests you need to do.

Index
I. How the Brake Booster Works
II. How to Do a Simple Vacuum Hose and Brake Booster Check
III. My Engine Misfires When I Depress the Brake Pedal
IV. Checking Engine Vacuum With a Vacuum Gauge
V. Checking the Brake Booster With a Hand-Held Vacuum Pump
Vacuum brake booster configuration. The push rod connects the brake pedal to the brake master cylinder through the center of the brake booster, which multiplies foot pressure on the pedal.
Vacuum brake booster configuration. The push rod connects the brake pedal to the brake master cylinder through the center of the brake booster, which multiplies foot pressure on the pedal. | Source

I. How the Brake Booster Works

Basically, the brake booster in your car helps multiply the pressure you apply to the brake pedal when slowing down or stopping the vehicle. You can find the brake booster (a large canister) mounted on the driver side of the firewall inside the engine compartment.

The booster has a simple configuration. A flexible diaphragm divides the booster into a front (engine side) and a rear (driver side) chamber, providing a tight seal between the two. On the outside, a thick hose connects the booster front chamber to the intake manifold as a source of vacuum.

A push rod (aka power piston) runs through the center of the booster. On one end, the rod connects to the brake pedal and to the brake master cylinder at the other.

The brake master cylinder attaches to the front and center of the brake booster. On a conventional booster, at the center of the push rod, you'll find a normally open valve that allows vacuum to enter the rear chamber. Also, the rear of the push rod works as a normally closed valve to keep atmospheric pressure out of the rear chamber until you push down the brake pedal. Thus, when the brake pedal is at rest, both the front and back chambers have vacuum in them.

When you step on the brake pedal to slow down or stop the vehicle, you also push on the rear valve and center valves. So the rear valve opens, allowing atmospheric pressure to enter the rear chamber. At the same time, the center valve closes the diaphragm valve, blocking vacuum to enter the rear of the chamber. Then, atmospheric pressure and vacuum help you to push the rod against the master cylinder, which uses a hydraulic system to apply the brakes without much effort from your part.

Note: On some models, both sides of the diaphragm contain atmospheric pressure when the brake pedal is at rest. When you push on the brake pedal, vacuum forms at the front side of the booster.

Now that you know how the brake booster in your car operates, you can use this knowledge to troubleshoot the device using a series of simple tests, without and with tools.

A vacuum hose connects the intake manifold to the brake booster.
A vacuum hose connects the intake manifold to the brake booster. | Source

II. How to Do a Simple Vacuum Hose and Brake Booster Check

Before checking the booster, it's a good idea to inspect the vacuum hose, fittings, and vacuum check valve. This is where most failures affecting brake booster operation occur.

How to Check the Booster Vacuum Hose

  1. First, apply the emergency brake and open the hood.
  2. Locate the brake booster mounted on the driver's side of the firewall inside the engine compartment.
  3. Visually inspect the hose that connects the brake booster to the intake manifold.
  4. Look for hardened spots, cracks, swollen or collapsed areas, holes, or other types of damage. Also, make sure the hose is properly connected (not loose); replace the hose if necessary.
  5. Then, check the one-way valve that connects the vacuum hose to the brake booster for cracks, looseness or damage (some vehicle models use an in-line check valve between the brake booster and intake manifold). The valve should allow flow from the brake booster to the intake manifold to create vacuum.
  6. The valve should allow flow from the brake booster to the intake manifold to create a vacuum. So disconnect the hose at the intake manifold and blow through the hose. If air passes through, replace the booster check valve.
  7. Check the manifold port for buildup (where the hose connects to the manifold).
  8. Now check for signs of brake fluid leak between the brake booster and brake master cylinder. If you see a wet or darkened area going from the center, down to the bottom of the brake booster, most likely you have a brake fluid leak and fluid might've entered the brake booster chamber. Take your car to the shop for an inspection, if necessary. You may need to replace the brake master cylinder, and possibly the brake booster.
  9. Start the engine and let it idle.
  10. Spray soapy water along the vacuum hose, vacuum check valve, and intake manifold fitting. If you see bubbles and water being sucked at any spot, you've found a vacuum leak. Replace the hose, fitting or booster check valve as necessary.
  11. Turn off the engine.

You can use the brake pedal to diagnose brake booster operation.
You can use the brake pedal to diagnose brake booster operation. | Source

How to Check the Brake Booster

If the booster vacuum hose and fittings are in good shape, it's time to move to the brake booster itself. A common and simple way to test the brake booster is by using the brake pedal.

  1. Sit behind the steering wheel, set the transmission to park (automatic) or neutral (manual), set the emergency brakes, and start the engine. Let it idle for two minutes and then shut if off.
  2. Pump the brake pedal at normal foot pressure four times and hold your foot on the pedal pressing down slightly on it.
  3. Start the engine. As you start the engine, you should feel the brake pedal moving downward slightly, about an inch or less. Otherwise, you don't have enough vacuum in the brake booster. To locate the fault, do the Engine Vacuum and Brake Booster tests described in the following sections.
  4. With the engine still idling, remove your foot from the brake pedal and turn off the engine.
  5. Depress the brake pedal (using normal foot pressure) four times. If you notice the pedal rising after the second or third you depress it, the booster is more likely holding vacuum. Otherwise, a vacuum leak is affecting booster performance. To locate the problematic area, test engine vacuum and brake booster performance using a vacuum gauge and a handheld vacuum pump as described in the next sections.
  6. Start the engine and let it idle.
  7. Now, push down the brake pedal and turn off the engine, but hold the pedal depressed for about 30 seconds after shutting off the engine.

The pedal should hold its position. If not, there's a leak in the brake booster, valve, vacuum hose, or intake manifold. Check the vacuum hose, booster check valve, engine vacuum, and brake booster as described in the following sections.

If you feel the brake pedal too hard while driving, and the vacuum hose and vacuum check valve work okay, most likely you need to replace the brake booster. Troubleshoot the brake booster using a hand held vacuum pump as described in the following section.

A brake booster leak can cause an engine misfire.
A brake booster leak can cause an engine misfire. | Source

III. My Engine Misfires When I Depress the Brake Pedal

An internal brake booster leak may manifest itself through an engine misfire.

If an internal valve or the diaphragm has failed, it may cause a leaned air/fuel ratio and a misfire as you step on the brake pedal, usually at idle.

If you know the vacuum hose, check valve and intake manifold fitting are in good condition, use this simple test to check whether the misfire comes from the brake booster:

  1. Start the engine and let it idle.
  2. Apply the parking brake.
  3. Cover a portion of the hose with a rag.
  4. Ask an assistant to depress the brake pedal.
  5. Clamp off the hose with a pair of pliers using the rag as a protector to prevent damage to the hose.

If engine idle smooths out and the misfire stops, the brake booster is causing the misfire and needs to be replaced.

You can use a vacuum gauge to verify engine vacuum level to the brake booster.
You can use a vacuum gauge to verify engine vacuum level to the brake booster. | Source

IV. Checking Engine Vacuum With a Vacuum Gauge

Your brake booster may be doing its job. Still, you may have noticed through your tests or daily driving that there's something not quite right with it. And you may be right.

If your booster barely passed the previous tests (or didn't), check that your booster is receiving the right amount of vacuum. That's what you'll do here. For this test, you'll need a vacuum gauge.

  1. Disconnect the vacuum hose from the brake booster and reconnect it using a tee union so that you can connect a vacuum gauge as well.
  2. Start the engine.
  3. Your gauge should read between 16 and 21HG (inches of mercury). If you get less than 16HG, check for a vacuum leak at the hose, intake manifold (a gasket leak or crack at the manifold itself), your engine (valve(s), head gasket); or a possible restriction to vacuum either at the vacuum hose, intake manifold port, or exhaust system (catalytic converter).

V. Checking the Brake Booster With a Hand-Held Vacuum Pump

If your previous tests point to a failed brake booster but you still need to confirm your diagnostic, use a hand-held vacuum pump. These tests are simple and only take a few minutes.

If you don't have a hand-held vacuum pump, you may rent one from your local auto parts store.

  1. Let the engine idle for about 20 minutes to let it reach operating temperature.
  2. Shut off the engine and unplug the vacuum hose from the vacuum check valve at the brake booster.
  3. Connect the vacuum pump to the check valve using one of the hoses that come with the tool.
  4. Then, apply 20HG of vacuum to the brake booster.
  5. Wait for 5 minutes. The booster should hold vacuum without leaking; otherwise, replace it (assuming the vacuum check valve and mounting gasket are good).
  6. Now, without disconnecting the pump, push down the brake pedal once. You should see vacuum drop by about 5 to 10HG. If booster vacuum remains at 20HG or drops to zero, replace the brake booster.
  7. Apply vacuum to the booster with the pump to bring it back to 20HG.
  8. Depress the brake pedal and hold it down for 30 seconds. You should see booster vacuum drop a little and then hold steady for the remaining of the 30 seconds. If vacuum drops considerably, replace the brake booster.

The troubleshooting procedures described here apply to the common vacuum brake booster, but configurations may differ in some respects. If you still feel that your tests seem inconclusive or that your booster comes with a different configuration, consult the repair manual for your particular vehicle make and model. The manual will show you what extra tests you should apply to your particular booster. You can buy an inexpensive, aftermarket repair manual at your local auto parts store or online. Buying the manual is a good investment because it comes with many troubleshooting procedures for many automotive problems, a maintenance schedule, and how to do those maintenance tasks.

This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. Content is for informational or entertainment purposes only and does not substitute for personal counsel or professional advice in business, financial, legal, or technical matters.

Questions & Answers

  • When I pump the brakes in my 02 Mustang it builds pressure and seems to be air in the system but then I give it a moment, and it goes right to the floor. My master cylinder isn't losing fluid, but it goes down when I pump my brakes, and then the fluid goes right back up. I feel air coming out from where it connects to the booster. I also get air bubbles in the cylinder. What do you think?

    Seems like there's a vacuum leak. It may be the check valve, the vacuum hose between the valve and intake or the booster itself.

  • After I stop the engine, I hear a hissing sound by the brake booster but while driving the brakes are fine. Also when I’m coasting in neutral, the idle sits higher than usual, 1300-1400 rpm. Also, sometimes the revs go up and down. No leaks on the hose intake manifold side. Do you think the erratic engine behavior is because of the hissing in the brake booster?

    It is possible. The hissing sound is a symptom of a vacuum leak. If you hear it by the brake booster, it might be the internal diaphragm, check valve or hose. I think this other post may help you:

    https://axleaddict.com/auto-repair/How-to-Find-and...

  • I have a 2007 Chevy Silverado truck. When I push the brake pedal, it gets hard. Then going about 45/50 the truck seems to want to brake and starts to shake. When at a light it seems like the brake is on and doesn't want to go. What would cause this?

    If all the brakes seem to activate, the problem might be with the brake master cylinder, probably bad seals. If you feel the problem is coming from one of the wheels, the piston might be dragging. Another problem could be with the booster acting on the master cylinder, or traction control issue.

  • I’ve been given a quote to replace the brake booster on my 2010 Infiniti FX35 of $2300.00 plus tax. This seems unreasonable to me given that the average cost according to a website I just read is between $160 to $590. What should I do given the apparently excessive quote I’ve received from my dealership?

    Dealer costs are always going to be high priced. You can shop around and get quotes from reputable shops in your area. They can set you up with a quality brake booster replacement and reasonable labor costs.

  • Why does my brake pedal move up and when I push the brake pedal?

    If it feels hard to push the pedal, there could be a problem with the brake booster, caliper, or brake master cylinder. If you feel a slight vibration (up and down movement) there could be uneven wear on the rotors or drums.

    This other post may help:

    https://axleaddict.com/auto-repair/Squeaky-Brakes-...

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      2 months ago

      It seems the booster check valve is allowing air into the master cylinder and down the brake lines. If the valve stops working entirely, the brakes will stop working. So you need to check the valve and the brake system as well.

    • profile image

      rome 

      2 months ago

      have a 2006 3.9L chevy impala. check valve out. engine runs smoother. check valve in. engine idles rough when brake pressed. takes the full pedal to the floor to come to stop.

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      3 months ago

      You might have a vacuum leak in the brake booster. Probably the diaphragm, the check valve or hose that connects to the brake booster.

    • profile image

      Courtney 

      3 months ago

      I’m trying to figure out what’s wrong with my truck it’s a s10 2003 extended cab and every time I push on the brakes it makes a hissing sound like air is coming out and then when I try to stop the truck you have to push hard on the brake just to get the truck to stop

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      3 months ago

      Wheel speed sensors - sorry for the confusion.

    • profile image

      Ken 

      3 months ago

      By "brake sensor" do you mean brake pad wear sensor?

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      3 months ago

      Check the master cylinder if the front brakes don't feel right. If your model has a brake sensor, you may want to have it checked as well.

    • profile image

      Ken 

      3 months ago

      Hello Dan, My 2001 Highlander is always braking in front, evenly both sides as if something went wrong with the front master cylinder (or does the e-brake go to the front?). What should I suspect first?

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      3 months ago

      Check the brake hoses. The lines could also be clogged. You may need to disconnect the hose and the line to see fluid is flowing freely. Hope this helps.

    • profile image

      Charles 

      3 months ago

      I got a 1991 chevy blazer 2wd. We changed the back brakes got fluid running in the lines but nothing to the cylinder. Changed the master cylinder and got front brakes. Just cant figure out why no back ones.

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      4 months ago

      If your brake pedal feels too stiff, check the master cylinder or the brake calipers, there could be a blockage in the system. This other post might help you:

      https://axleaddict.com/auto-repair/How-to-Diagnose...

    • profile image

      Randall 

      4 months ago

      Hi , i have a 1996 Nissan Sentra ( bubble shape) and my brakes is building pressure when i drives then i

      must stop to take out the vacuum and release some pressure and it will drives normal again...i replaced the booster already ...

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      4 months ago

      Take a look at section V of the post, Checking the Brake Booster With a Hand-Held Vacuum Pump. This can help you diagnose the booster.

    • profile image

      Rob 

      4 months ago

      I have a 2005 Toyota Camry LE V6. The brakes operate without issue except during a panic stop. During a rapid application of the pedal, it feels like its pulled away from my foot (as if it suddenly becomes over boosted) and the engine rpm drops significantly.

      After reading your article, I'm guessing there is an internal leak. Is there a way to check for that?

      Thanks

    • profile image

      Jeroen 

      4 months ago

      Thanks! I will check that...

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      4 months ago

      Take a look at the check valve, the vacuum hose and the connections at both ends. There could be a leak somewhere in there.

    • profile image

      jeroen 

      4 months ago

      Hello;

      I replaced the brake booster of my Ford Thunderbird 1966: the first brake attempt holds a strong braking power for 1/2 second, then this power fades away.. any idea what could be the problem?

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      4 months ago

      Check the brake master cylinder (seals, piston), hydraulic system (air, leaks, fluid level) and, possibly, ABS pump.

    • profile image

      Suranga 

      4 months ago

      I have nissan caravan van. Engine model QD32. I replaced duble booster and break vacum pump. But still not applying the break

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      5 months ago

      There could be a small leak in the brake booster or between the booster and the engine. Check the valve and the connections, make sure they are tight.

    • profile image

      Daniel Kwame 

      6 months ago

      Whenever I drive slowly due to traffic my brake pedal sill be hard to press but when I get free way and speed the car the thepedal comes to normal.

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      10 months ago

      Sometimes it's a good idea to get both replaces, specially if it is an old master cylinder. You won't have to worry a leaking cylinder may ruin the booster in the near future. Also, you save some money in labor costs, since both can be installed at the same time.

    • profile image

      Jennie 

      10 months ago

      How do I know if I need a master cylinder along with a brake booster I was told by a mechanic I need a brake booster but another mechanic said I should get a combo part with the master cylinder connected

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      11 months ago

      Hi Chef,

      Try checking the hose. Unplug it from the booster side and see if you get good vacuum with the engine running. Sometime these hoses peel from the inside and restric flow. Check the brake hoses as well. Some brakebooseter have a return spring built in - if applicable, check for operation. You may need the rpair manual for this.

      Good luck

    • profile image

      Chef T-Lee 

      11 months ago

      Hi Dan,

      I have a 97 F-350 7.3 turbo diesel engine and the break padel has to be pulled up with my foot in order to move the truck.

      Boost pump or vacuum pump

      I have a new master cylinder on it .

      What are your thoughts.

      Thanks

      Chef T-Lee

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      12 months ago

      Hi Samiullah

      Check the booster valve or a possible leak in the vacuum lines or gasket.

      Hope this helps.

    • profile image

      samiullah 

      12 months ago

      When I push break my track air low

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      13 months ago

      Hi Carson

      Make sure the MAP is working fine first - then check for vacuum pressure, if you suspect a leak - these couple of posts might help:

      https://axleaddict.com/auto-repair/How-to-Find-and...

      https://axleaddict.com/auto-repair/Use-a-Vacuum-Ga...

    • profile image

      Carson 

      13 months ago

      Hey i have a 2000 impala 3.8 it threw a code for the map sensor one night then wouldn't start the next day. I disconnected the vacuum line to the brake booster and it cranks ive replace the check valve but no luck. Could it be the booster no allowing proper vacuum pressure causing the car to shut off? I had absolutely no brake issues while car was running. Its my daily driver and it went with no warning at all

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      17 months ago

      Hi HC,

      * the module is the brain for the (technical name) ABS electro-hydraulic modulator (you may know it as the ABS actuator). In general it includes components like solenoid valves, hydraulic pump and motor, pressure switch and of course the master cylinder and booster assembly. A malfunction can ba causing the wheels to lock up. But make sure to check first the brake booster and valves first.

      * Usually, the valve is normally open, but it depends on the particular configuration of the booster you have. See the article to test the valve.

      * The check valve should allow flow from the brake booster to the intake but not the other way.

      Good luck

    • profile image

      Hernani Crespi 

      17 months ago

      Hey Dan, which Module ? I'm also having an issue that my 4 wheels are locking. Brake pedal sometimes is sticking and taking a few to come back.

      I've noticed that when I remove the vacuum valve and hose the pedal comes back to normal right away. Any way to test the vacuum valve ? Should it be open all the time ?

      tks !!!

    • profile image

      Edson Kanani 

      18 months ago

      Good site, I come to learn so many within short time.

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      18 months ago

      Hi KD

      Check the module, it might be sticking.

      Good luck

    • profile image

      Kelly Doolittle 

      18 months ago

      Would it make all 4 wheel, the breaks, to lock down n wouldn't release. But after awhile it does let go n drive.

    • Dan Ferrell profile imageAUTHOR

      Dan Ferrell 

      2 years ago

      Hi marciano,

      If there's a small leak, it's upsetting the mixture, and could cause it to loose power.

      Goodl luck

    • profile image

      marciano 

      2 years ago

      can the brake booster cause the car to drive slower even if you mash the gas panel?

    • Kingsley Iyoke profile image

      Kings 

      2 years ago

      Nice hub. Thanks for the info

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, axleaddict.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://axleaddict.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)